Foreign investors eyeing Vietnam’s potential market for a 100% foreign-owned company tend to decide between two choices: a limited liability company or a joint stock company. How does this business entity function in Vietnam and why does the majority of global entrepreneurs prefer this model?

In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive guide to features and procedures to set up a joint stock company in Vietnam. Explore more now.

What is a Joint Stock Company in Vietnam?

A joint stock company (JSC) is a legal entity established by at least three founding shareholders. Shareholders of a JSC can be either individuals or organizations, and they hold several shares that are divided into equal units to make up the company’s charter capital.

Depending on the share subscription of each shareholder to the joint stock company in Vietnam, these members would be responsible for the company’s debts and liabilities corresponding only to the amount of capital contributed.

It is also worth noting that a Vietnam joint stock company is the only business entity that is entitled to the right to issue shares under Vietnam regulations and laws.

Like a limited liability company in Vietnam, the JSC can also be registered under two following forms:

  • A wholly foreign-invested company; or
  • A joint venture company.

Key features of a Joint Stock Company in Vietnam

Corporate structure

Pursuant to Article 134, Law on Enterprise 2014 (equivalent to the prescribed provision of Article 137, Law on Enterprise 2020 which came into force in 2021), a joint stock company in Vietnam is granted two options for its corporate structure:

Model 1: A JSC is structured with the General Meeting of Shareholders, The Board of Directors, the Supervisory Board, and the Director/Director General. Note that the Supervisory Board is required only when the JSC meets two following conditions:

  • The number of shareholders in the company is more than 11; and
  • The corporate shareholders hold over 50% of the total shares in the company.

Model 2: This simplified corporate structure includes the General Meeting of Shareholders, The Board of Directors, and the Director/Director General. If the JSC decides to follow this model, certain criteria must be met by the Board of Directors:

  • At least 20% of the BOD’s members are independent; and
  • An Audit Committee must be established under the control of the BOD.

Limited liability of shareholders

Shareholders of a joint stock company in Vietnam are only liable for the financial obligations corresponding to their amount of face value of shares contributed to the company.

Simply put, if you subscribe to shares and become an individual shareholder of a Vietnam JSC, you will not experience any loss that surpasses your contributed amount when registering the company.

Raising capital

A limited liability company in Vietnam can raise capital by either its business owner (in case of a one-member LTD) or its members increasing their capital contribution or added contributions made by new members (in case of a multi-member LTD).

A joint stock company, by contrast, is much more flexible in terms of how to increase the charter capital of the company. In particular, JSCs are allowed to issue different types of shares to raise capital under Vietnam laws and regulations. Some common examples of such methods include:

  • Sales of shares to other shareholders;
  • Sales of shares to non-shareholders;
  • Issuance of shares to the public or on the stock market;

Types of shares in a JSC

Two popular types of shares can be owned by a joint stock company in Vietnam: Ordinary shares and Preferred shares.

An ordinary share is the compulsory and most widely used type of share in most joint stock companies. As per Vietnam laws and regulations, an organization being a corporate shareholder of a JSC and holding no less than 10% of ordinary shares can be entitled to appoint up to 3 authorized representatives.

Preferred shares can also be split up into different types, namely voting preference shares, dividends preference shares, redeemable preference shares, and other types of preferred shares as prescribed in the company’s charter and relevant laws on securities.

Among those, only authorized entities and founding shareholders are granted the right to own voting preference shares, and this preference is only valid within 3 years from the date of the Business Registration Certificate issued.

Important Tips

Important Tips

Be advised that preferred shares can be transmitted into ordinary shares, but not vice versa.

Another must-know feature that makes a JSC attractive to foreign investors is its high level of flexibility in the transfer of shares.

Evidentially, shares of a joint stock company in Vietnam can be freely transferred as regulated in Law on Enterprise, except for the case of transferring ordinary shares of founding shareholders to the non-shareholder of the JSC unless otherwise approved by the General Meeting of Shareholders.

In addition, unlike some other types of business that form restricted bonds-related matters, a joint stock company in Vietnam is allowed to carry on activities of issuing bonds, convertible bonds as well as other bonds as specified by Vietnam laws and the company’s charter.

Requirements for setting up a Vietnam Joint Stock Company

As foreign investors, you should take into account the following requirements for setting up a joint stock company in Vietnam:

Naming requirement for a Vietnam JSC

Below are key criteria for an eligible JSC name when incorporating a JSC company in Vietnam:

  • The Vietnamese name of a JSC must have two parts: the type of company which must be written as “công ty cổ phần” (or its abbreviation as “công ty CP”), and a proper name using the Vietnamese alphabet, the letter F, J, Z, W, numbers, and symbols;
  • The name of a JSC must not be identical or similar to other already existing names; overlap with the name of a state agency or other social organizations without consent for use from such units; or use symbols or words marking a contrast to Vietnam culture and customs.
  • A JSC’s foreign name in Vietnam should comply with the provision prescribed in Article 40, LoE 2014 (or Article 39, LoE 2020)

Documents required for registering a Vietnam JSC

Foreign investors who wish to establish a Vietnam joint stock company must obtain an Enterprise Registration Certificate (ERC) as stipulated in Vietnam laws. Below are documents that should be included when you send the ERC application:

  • Application form for business registration;
  • The company charter;
  • List of JSC members, including all founding shareholders and shareholders who are foreign investors;
  • Copies of identification proof – i.e., ID card, passports (for individual members);
  • Copies of the establishment decision, business registration certificate, or other equivalent documents (for organizational members), and identification documents of the authorized representative;
  • Copies of registration documents of the organizations which have been legalized by the consular (for foreign organizations);
  • Investment Registration Certificate (for foreign investors).

Vietnam JSCs and post-registration-related matters

Business license application. You can be required to obtain additional business licenses to legally incorporate a joint stock company in Vietnam. Note that the business license requirement can vary depending on your business sector of choice.

Payment for registered shares. Shareholders of Vietnam joint stock companies must make full payment for the registered shares within 90 days after the receipt of the ERC. The Board of Directors has to ensure the amount and the deadline for the payment of relevant shareholders.

Tax payment. A joint stock company in Vietnam is levied on corporate income tax, business license tax, and other forms of tax as regulated under Vietnamese laws.

Particularly, a Vietnam JSC shall be taxed on a standard corporate income tax (CIT) rate of 20% on its earnings generated in Vietnam, except for specific activities involved in oil, gas, or precious natural resources-related sectors.

Quick Note

Quick Note

A key to mention is that Vietnam does adopt tax incentive policies based on location and sector criteria for projects, enabling reduced tax rates concerning corporate tax on foreign investors doing business in Vietnam.

Other kinds of tax applicable to Vietnam JSCs may include income tax, value-added tax, or import/ export duties. Further information about these types of taxes can be found in the Vietnam Tax System.

Other compliance duties. After ending every fiscal year, a Vietnam company with foreign investment must submit the annual financial statement which has been audited and approved by the General Meeting of Shareholders to the competent authority.

Furthermore, information including the company’s charter, particulars of the Board of Directors, annual financial statements, and other related documents are required to be publicly disclosed on the joint stock company’s website.

Should you have any questions regarding setting up a Vietnam joint stock company, contact us immediately for more helpful information via or through the chatbox!

Disclaimer: While BBCIncorp strives to make the information on this website as timely and accurate as possible, the information itself is for reference purposes only. You should not substitute the information provided in this article for competent legal advice. Feel free to contact BBCIncorp’s customer services for advice on your specific cases.

Share this article

Industry News & Insights

Get helpful tips and info from our newsletter!

Stay in the know and be empowered with our strategic how-tos, resources, and guidelines.